TABLE 1

MICs of brevibacillin from Brevibacillus laterosporus OSY-I1, vancomycin, and nisin against selected bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains

Bacterial strainaMIC (μg/ml)
BrevibacillinVancomycinNisin
Gram-positive bacteria
    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrisb1.0<0.5<0.5
    A. acidoterrestris ATCC 49025b0.5–1.0<0.5<0.5
    Bacillus cereus ATCC 117782.0–4.02.0–4.08.0
    B. cereus ATCC 145791.01.02.0
    Clostridium difficile A515c4.0–8.02.04.0–8.0
    C. difficile CL148d4.0–8.02.04.0–8.0
    Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212e2.02.0>16.0
    E. faecalis ATCC 51299, vancomycin resistante4.0–8.0>16.0>16.0
    Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014f1.0>16.0<0.5
    Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454g2.0<0.5>16.0
    Listeria innocua ATCC 33090h1.0–2.01.02.0–4.0
    Listeria monocytogenes OSY-8578h1.0–2.01.0<0.5
    L. monocytogenes Scott Ah1.01.04.0
    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 65381.0–2.01.01.0
    S. aureus, methicillin resistant (MRSA)i1.01.0–2.02.0–4.0
Gram-negative bacteria
    Escherichia coli K-12>32>16>16
    E. coli O157:H7 EDL 93332>16>16
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853e>32>16>16
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 109>32>16>16
  • a Unless stated otherwise, the strains were incubated in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton II broth (MHB; Becton, Dickinson & Co., Sparks, MD) at 37°C for 20 h.

  • b A highly spoilage-inducing isolate provided by a food processor; the strain was cultured in yeast starch-glucose broth at 37°C for 48 h.

  • c Provided by W. A. Gebreyes, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University; the strain was cultured in brain heart infusion supplemented with 5% yeast extract and incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h.

  • d Provided by J. T. Lejeune, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University; the strain was cultured under the same conditions used with the A515 strain (see footnote c).

  • e Incubated in TSB at 37°C for 20 h.

  • f Incubated in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth at 30°C for 20 h. ATCC 8014 is an antibiotic-resistant strain.

  • g Incubated in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth at 30°C for 20 h.

  • h Incubated in TSB at 37°C for 20 h.

  • i The MIC of oxacillin for the isolate is more than 32 μg/ml.