Table 2.

Carbohydrate and citric acid consumption and metabolite production of cocoa-specific and cocoa-nonspecific LAB strains in a cocoa pulp simulation medium for lactic acid bacteria

StrainFermentation temp (°C)Mean consumption ± SD (mM) of substrate (after 48 h of fermentation)Mean production ± SD (mM) of metabolites (after 48 h of fermentation)Carbon recovery (%)
GlucoseFructoseCitric acidLactic acidAcetic acidCarbon dioxideMannitolFlavor compounda
L. fermentum 2223763.4 ± 13.1107.2 ± 10.755.4 ± 5.675.3 ± 1.8106.7 ± 2.0147.1 ± 0.198.3 ± 2.02293
L. fermentum M1033762.1 ± 8.1142.9 ± 9.660.2 ± 4.497.5 ± 1.2131.0 ± 1.3153.8 ± 0.1140.6 ± 9.616102
L. fermentum M1583778.1 ± 9.6145.0 ± 8.146.9 ± 0.088.4 ± 1.9125.0 ± 2.7142.1 ± 0.1140.0 ± 8.51897
L. fermentum M3323787.2 ± 10.1130.1 ± 12.954.1 ± 1.595.3 ± 2.4135.5 ± 3.8154.2 ± 0.1135.1 ± 0.32098
L. plantarum 803724.2 ± 16.238.3 ± 10.014.3 ± 6.9140.3 ± 0.615.2 ± 0.59.2 ± 0.100100
L. fabifermentans LMG 24284T309.9 ± 15.939.3 ± 13.9098.0 ± 1.40000101
L. fermentum IMDO 1301013762.5 ± 5.3143.7 ± 7.9070.2 ± 1.165.5 ± 1.264.2 ± 0.1138.0 ± 5.70100
Lc. pseudomesenteroides 223027.0 ± 5.685.5 ± 7.316.6 ± 4.554.1 ± 1.251.2 ± 1.241.7 ± 0.182.8 ± 6.00104
F. pseudoficulneus M832852.4 ± 15.581.7 ± 19.5050.4 ± 0.246.9 ± 0.344.2 ± 0.189.0 ± 6.90102
W. ghanensis LMG P-23179302.9 ± 7.5052.7 ± 3.310.0 ± 0.657.8 ± 5.0111.1 ± 0.1026108
W. fabaria LMG 24289T3021.7 ± 17.1046.6 ± 1.218.7 ± 0.666.0 ± 1.6108.2 ± 0.102496
L. cacaonum LMG 24285T30028.3 ± 24.547.7 ± 2.163.4 ± 0.451.4 ± 1.288.1 ± 0.1020101
  • a Theoretical, estimated flavor compound production by the cocoa-specific LAB strains, according to the pathway proposed by Mayo et al. (17). In all cases, the flavor compound produced was 2,3-butanediol, except for the L. cacaonum LMG 24285T monoculture fermentations, where the flavor compound was acetoin.