Table 1

Results of mixed-effects model analysesa

ParameterUninfested pupaeInfested pupaeAdult beesVarroa mites
FdfPFdfPFdfPFdfP
DWV
    Treatment0.031,70.87110.761,70.412720.431,70.0027c9.321,70.0185b
    Date3.524,260.0199b2.504,140.09029.754,26<0.0001d1.504,140.2561
    Treat × Date1.814,260.15670.804,140.54646.034,260.0014c3.254,140.0440b
    Mites ad1.071,260.30961.031,140.32676.601,260.0163b1.581,140.2292
    Mites pu1.071,260.31080.071,140.79826.731,260.0154b0.051,140.8227
BQCV
    Treatment0.031,70.21190.101,70.75832.361,70.16840.001,70.9974
    Date3.524,260.33546.354,140.0039c2.384,260.07751.384,140.9800
    Treat × Date1.814,260.20339.614,140.0006d1.404,260.26110.104,140.2914
    Mites ad1.071,260.48901.211,140.28980.471,260.49940.001,140.9709
    Mites pu1.071,260.12960.051,140.83380.091,260.77250.031,140.8715
SBV
    Treatment0.031,70.35970.161,70.69731.051,70.3394
    Date3.524,260.0002d4.304,140.0178b4.204,260.0094c
    Treat × Date1.814,260.0001d6.694,140.0031c2.524,260.0655
    Mites ad1.071,260.25510.231,140.64020.621,260.4386
    Mites pu1.071,260.20590.221,120.64902.791,260.1067
  • a Effects of the acaricide treatment (Treatment), sampling date (Date), and their interactions (Treat × Date), as well as the effects of two independent variables, the adult and pupal mite infestation rates (Mites ad and Mites pu, respectively) on the DWV, BQCV, and SBV titers in uninfested pupae, mite-infested pupae, adult bees, and the Varroa mites found in the infested pupae. F values with associated P values of <0.05, <0.01, or <0.001 are in boldface.

  • b P < 0.05.

  • c P < 0.01.

  • d P < 0.001.