Table 1

Ratios of concentrate ration to roughage in feeds and pH values and microbial abundances of rumen fluid samples from four different ruminants

ParameterRumen fluid sample (replicates 1, 2, 3)a
HGSHFSHDCKNG
Diet ratiobCow concentrate ration: timothy hay = 4:6Cow concentrate ration: rice straw = 9:1Cow concentrate ration: timothy hay = 7:3Goat concentrate ration: Bermuda grass = 9:1
pH6.78, 6.88, 6.926.53, 6.96, 6.557.86, 7.81, 7.575.09, 5.27, 4.97
    Mean ± SD6.86 ± 0.076.68 ± 0.247.75 ± 0.165.11 ± 0.15
Abundance of small subunit rRNA genes (copies/ml)
    Bacteria (109)9.65 ± 0.67, 9.91 ± 0.03, 8.626 ± 0.93.38 ± 1.20, 3.89 ± 0.28, 2.30 ± 0.561.74 ± 0.50, 2.36 ± 0.38, 1.42 ± 0.296.78 ± 1.40, 6.93 ± 0.12, 6.77 ± 0.93
        Mean ± SD9.39 ± 0.683.19 ± 0.821.84 ± 0.486.73 ± 0.09
    Archaea (106)10.1 ± 2.59, 13.1 ± 3.89, 14.9 ± 2.267.69 ± 0.29, 8.15 ± 0.48, 5.48 ± 0.589.63 ± 0.12, 9.89 ± 0.26, 6.70 ± 0.398.87 ± 1.63, 8.63 ± 1.63, 8.01 ± 1.21
        Mean ± SD13.0 ± 1.97.11 ± 1.48.74 ± 1.88.56 ± 0.45
    Protozoa (105)1.27 ± 0.26, 1.61 ± 0.35, 1.83 ± 0.261.80 ± 0.06, 2.24 ± 0.02, 2.26 ± 0.252.01 ± 0.23, 1.46 ± 0.27, 1.69 ± 0.110.05 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.02, 0.12 ± 0.05
        Mean ± SD1.57 ± 0.282.10 ± 0.261.72 ± 0.280.11 ± 0.05
  • a HGS, Hanwoo in the growing stage; HFS, Hanwoo in the late fattening stage; HDC, Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle; KNG, Korean native goats. The data shown are for three replicate animals ± standard deviations where applicable. Mean pH values and mean ss-rRNA gene copies for the rumen samples were derived from the same three ruminant species.

  • b The cow concentrate ration consisted of 48.0% corn, 41.0% wheat bran, 5.0% soybean meal, 2.0% rapeseed meal, 2.0% molasses, 1.5% limestone, 0.4% salt, and 0.1% lasalocid. The goat concentrate ration contained 25.0% corn, 20.0% wheat bran, 15.0% wheat, 15.0% corn gluten meal, 6.0% rapeseed meal, 6.0% copra meal, 4.0% molasses, 2.0% soybean meal, and 7.0% vitamin-mineral mixture.