Table 2

Environmental samples originating from close to the farm housing the infected cattle studied by qPCR

LocalityMatrixM. avium subsp. paratuberculosis prevalencea
Spring (12 mo)Autumn (18 mo)Spring (24 mo)Total no. of samples examined/no. of positive samples (% positive)
No. of samples examined/no. of positive samplesqPCRNo. of samples examined/no. of positive samplesqPCRNo. of samples examined/no. of positive samplesqPCR
Field middenSoil2/2102–1031/11021/00
Vegetable1/1102b4/2102b,c2/00
Biofilm1/1100NANANANA
    Subtotal4/45/33/012/7 (58)
Ditch at field middenSoilNDND1/11031/1103
Water sediment1/11031/1103NANA
VegetableNDNDNDND2/1103c
    Subtotal1/12/23/26/5 (83)
FieldSoil2/001/001/00
Vegetable1/1102c2/002/00
    Subtotal3/13/03/09/1 (11)
PondWater sediment2/11021/001/1101
Biofilm1/001/1102NDND
VegetableNDNDNDND3/00
    Subtotal3/12/14/19/3 (33)
Total (% positive)11/7 (64)12/6 (50)13/3 (23)36/16 (44)
Geometric mean5.03 × 1028.76 × 1025.43 × 102
  • a Values were determined at the indicated times after removal of the infected cattle. qPCR values are the numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells per g or per ml of sample. NA, not available; ND, not done.

  • b Upper part of the vegetable.

  • c Roots of the vegetable.

  • d Geometric mean calculated according to absolute values.