Table 1

Percentages of DWV-, Nosema ceranae-, and ABPV-positive individual workers collected in front of hives from October 2007 to February 2008a

MoColony fate (n)% DWV positiveP value% ABPV positiveP value% N. ceranaepositiveP value
Oct.Live (32)890.792280.847280.722
Dead (33)883024
Nov.Live (41)880.035460.004390.418
Dead (76)992132
Dec.Live (51)73<0.001290.049370.438
Dead (63)1001444
Jan.Live (38)42<0.001160.949370.693
Dead (14)932143
Feb.Live (28)410.080430.366460.596
Dead (10)802030
  • a Data are grouped according to the sampling month and the fate of the colony (surviving [live] or dead). Significant P values are in bold (P < 0.05, χ2 tests with Yates corrections in cases of small sample sizes; n, sample size).