Table 2

pH values, organic acid concentrations, fermentation quotient, concentration of ethanol, and total free amino acids of sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional/typical Italian breadsa

SourdoughbpHLactic acid (mM)Acetic acid (mM)Fermentation quotientEthanol (M)Free amino acids (mg kg−1)
Pane di Altamura PDO4.03 ± 0.02 d82.0 ± 3.6 cde20.0 ± 0.8 ab3.9 ± 0.91 e0.25 ± 0.01 fg612.2 ± 30.6 de
Pane di Laterza4.05 ± 0.01 d79.0 ± 3.9 def18.0 ± 0.7 cde4.4 ± 0.92 de0.24 ± 0.04 fg669.1 ± 33.0 c
Pane di Matera PGI4.21 ± 0.01 b68.5 ± 2.8 h20.6 ± 0.6 a3.3 ± 0.30 f0.05 ± 0.02 j555.6 ± 27.0 h
Pane di Montecalvo Irpino4.17 ± 0.03 bc84.0 ± 4.2 cd20.6 ± 0.9 a4.0 ± 0.93 e0.25 ± 0.01 fg562.2 ± 28.1 gh
Pane Casereccio di Reggio Calabria4.28 ± 0.02 a75.3 ± 3.7 f14.5 ± 0.7 gh5.2 ± 0.93 bc0.19 ± 0.01 h664.0 ± 33.2 c
Pane Casereccio del Molise3.95 ± 0.07 ef94.0 ± 4.7 a17.0 ± 0.8 ef5.5 ± 0.90 b0.35 ± 0.02 cd412.6 ± 20.6 k
Pane Casareccio di Genzano PGI4.14 ± 0.02 c63.7 ± 3.1 i12.1 ± 0.6 i5.3 ± 0.91 bc0.31 ± 0.02 de595.4 ± 29.7 ef
Bozza Pratese3.89 ± 0.01 fg90.0 ± 4.5 ab18.8 ± 0.9 bc4.7 ± 0.90 cd0.15 ± 0.01 i570.0 ± 28.5 fgh
Pane di Altopascio Tradizionale3.97 ± 0.01 e87.3 ± 2.1 bc6.0 ± 0.3 j14.5 ± 0.95 a0.48 ± 0.02 ab590.9 ± 29.5 efg
Pane di Terni3.90 ± 0.01 fg85.0 ± 3.7 c16.4 ± 0.8 f5.1 ± 0.88 bc0.25 ± 0.05 fg613.5 ± 30.6 de
Bastone di Padova3.90 ± 0.01 fg75.1 ± 2.6 f14.0 ± 0.7 h5.4 ± 0.91 b0.24 ± 0.01 fg339.6 ± 16.9 m
Coppia Ferrarese PGI3.89 ± 0.05 fg78.5 ± 3.9 ef18.3 ± 0.9 cd4.3 ± 0.91 de0.20 ± 0.01 h487.1 ± 24.3 j
Pane Casereccio Marchigiano3.97 ± 0.08 e87.1 ± 4.3 bc15.6 ± 1 g5.6 ± 0.14 b0.50 ± 0.01 a763.5 ± 38.1 b
Pane di Cappelli3.97 ± 0.02 e75.0 ± 3.7 fg18.0 ± 0.7 cde4.1 ± 0.90 e0.28 ± 0.01 ef361.7 ± 18.0 l
Moddizzosu3.87 ± 0.11 g84.2 ± 1.9 cd18.6 ± 0.5 c4.5 ± 0.91 de0.38 ± 0.01 c624.2 ± 18.4 d
Pane Carasau3.97 ± 0.08 e80.5 ± 3.1 de17.4 ± 0.4 def4.6 ± 0.91 d0.18 ± 0.01 hi608.7 ± 11.5 ef
Pane nero di Castelvetrano3.74 ± 0.06 h78.0 ± 3.9 efg20.0 ± 0.8 ab3.9 ± 0.93 e0.20 ± 0.01 h1090.5 ± 54.5 a
Pane di Lentini3.89 ± 0.02 fg73.4 ± 3.6 g17.5 ± 0.7 def4.1 ± 0.89 e0.45 ± 0.02 b520.2 ± 26.0 i
Pagnotta del Dittaino PDO3.70 ± 0.02 i83.2 ± 4.1 cd18.2 ± 0.7 cd4.5 ± 0.90 de0.21 ± 0.01 gh553.4 ± 27.6 h
  • a Values are means ± standard deviation (n = 6). Values within a column with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).

  • b Sourdoughs are indicated with the names of the related breads.