Table 3

Bacterial screen of larvae, NEWs, and adult nurse workersa

Colony (status) and life stageScreening result (no. of bees positive/no. screened)
Universal BacteriaAlpha-1Alpha-2.1Alpha-2.2BetaFirm-4Firm-5Gamma-1
Beltsville, MD 1 (EFB)
    3rd-instar larva1/50/10/11/10/10/10/10/1
    5th-instar larva5/50/50/55/50/50/50/50/5
Beltsville, MD 2 (healthy)
    3rd-instar larva0/5
    5th-instar larva0/5
Beltsville, MD 3 (healthy)
    3rd-instar larva0/5
    5th-instar larva0/5
Tucson, AZ (healthy)
    5th-instar larva1/50/10/11/10/10/10/10/1
    Nurse adults5/52/55/52/55/50/55/55/5
West Haven, CT (healthy)
    5th-instar larva5/51/50/55/50/50/50/50/5
  • a Boldface numbers indicate positive reactions. EFB, European foulbrood. A dash indicates that reactions were not performed because the universal bacterial primer gave a negative result.