Table 1

The cp32 DNA elements and associated erp loci naturally contained in the analyzed Lyme disease-causing spirochetesa

Genospecies and straincp32 segregation locus type
cp32-1cp32-2/7cp32-3cp32-4cp32-5cp32-6cp32-8cp32-9cp32-10cp32-11cp32-12cp32-13
B. burgdorferi B31berpA1B2erpCDerpGerpHYerpAB5erpKerpAB8erpPQerpX
erpLM
B. burgdorferi BL206berpLMerpGerpHYerpAB5erpKerpPQerpXerpAB11
B. burgdorferi bu Bol26R10V38N41, N42Q34W10X41, X42
B. burgdorferi 297cospE1, elpB1-1elpA2ospFelpA1ospE5, elpB1-5bbk2.10p21, elpB2bbk2.11ospE12, elpB1-12
B. burgdorferi Sh-2-82erp41-1, erp42-2erp43erp44erp45erp41-5, erp42-5erp46erp50, erp51erp47, erp48erp49erp41-12, erp42-12
B. burgdorferi 156aP15O27S39R40M38L38, L39W37X39, X40
B. burgdorferi ZS7dP41AC26, AC64R38, R39N42, N43AC26, AC64X38
B. burgdorferi 64beP38O38SL81, SL82R39, R40V38, V39M38, M39SL81, SL82Truncated plasmid, no erp locusW38
B. burgdorferi WI91-23P39O42Truncated plasmid, no erp locusV22M39, M40Q39W40, W41
B. burgdorferi 94aO39V39M40, M41Q40, Q41W38, W39
B. burgdorferi JD1fPV38, PV80S38M38, M39L38, L39N44, N45Q40W44X44
B. burgdorferi CA-11.2AP40S38V38Q39, Q40N38
B. burgdorferi 118agON39, ON83R38V25M39, M40L38, L39ON39, ON83Q40, Q41AB39
B. burgdorferi N40ospEFerp23, erp24erp25p21, erp22erp26erp27
B. burgdorferi 72aO40Truncated plasmid, no erp locusV24Q39, Q40X36N39
B. burgdorferi 29805O38R39, R40V28N43, N44X36
SV1h (unnamed species)O39, O40S38, S39Truncated plasmid, no erp locusM31X50, X51
B. valaisiana VS116O43 (aka H460)V36, V37Q36
B. bissettii DN127iO40S39R38, R39V40M40(i)(i)(i)
B. afzelii PKoP38O31S39V39N36, N37W37X38, X39
B. afzelii ACA-1P41, P42S38, S39R38V40
B. garinii PBrV40Q67
  • a Plasmid nomenclature is standardized according to segregation locus type, such that all plasmids designated cp32-1, for example, contain a similar segregation locus. All cp32 segregation loci fell into the 12 previously described groups (see Fig. 1). Note that the first examined strain, B. burgdorferi B31, contains 2 distinct prophages that possess identical maintenance loci, cp32-2 and cp32-7, and define segregation locus type 32-2/7. As a result, the numbering scheme for the 12 groups goes up to cp32-13. For those erp genes that have been previously described, the published names are used. Various naming schemes were applied to these genes by their discoverers. Previously undescribed erp alleles found by mining GenBank are identified by the open reading frame designations of the entries.

  • b The cp32-10 plasmids of strain B31 and BL206 are naturally integrated into an unrelated linear replicon, which created the ca. 56-kb linear plasmid lp56.

  • c The cp32-7 and cp32-9 plasmids of strain 297 are naturally truncated and have been named cp18-a and cp18-2, respectively.

  • d The open reading frames are designated with the two letters, AC.

  • e The cp32-3 and cp32-8 plasmids of strain 64b are fused together into a single circular replicon, cp32-3-8. Its open reading frames are designated with the two letters, SL.

  • f The cp32-1 and cp32-5 of strain JD1 are fused together into a single circular replicon, cp32-1-5. Its open reading frames are designated with the two letters, PV.

  • g The cp32-2/7 and cp32-9 plasmids of strain 118a are fused into a single circular replicon, cp32-7-9. Its open reading frames are designated with the two letters, ON.

  • h Strain SV1 also contains an additional legitimate erp locus (ORF A100) on a linear plasmid that contains an lp54-type replication locus. This strain falls within an as-yet-unnamed group of Lyme disease-causing Borrelia.

  • i Strain DN127 contains a large circular plasmid that includes portions of four distinct cp32s and includes replication loci of types cp32-9, cp32-11, and cp32-12. Three erp loci are located on this chimera, two monocistronic and one bicistronic. For the purposes of this study, the erp genes are designated open reading frames Quad-A, Quad-B1, Quad-B2, and Quad-C.