TABLE 5

Chemical profiles of wines produced using either S. cerevisiae AWRI1631 alone (control) or M. pulcherrima AWRI1149/S. cerevisiae AWRI1631 sequential inoculationa

CharacteristicChardonnayShiraz
AWRI1631 (control)AWRI1149/AWRI1631AWRI1631 (control)AWRI1149/AWRI1631
% sugar consumed100a ± 0.0100a ± 0.099.6a ± 0.099.8b ± 0.0
% (vol/vol) ethanol15.1a ± 0.114.2b ± 0.213.8a ± 0.812.2b ± 0.1
Concn (g/liter)
    Glycerol6.5a ± 0.28.1b ± 0.510.1a ± 0.114.9b ± 0.4
    Malic acid2.7a ± 0.72.0a ± 0.00.8a ± 0.00.7b ± 0.1
    Succinic acid2.8a ± 0.32.1b ± 0.22.7a ± 0.13.2b ± 0.1
Ester concn (mg/liter)
    Ethyl acetate31.8a ± 1.0207.6b ± 33.219.4a ± 1.853.9b ± 18.3
    2-Methylpropyl acetate<LODb<LOD0.4a ± 0.00.9b ± 0.3
    Ethyl butanoate0.02a ± 0.040.02a ± 0.00.1a ± 0.00.1a ± 0.0
    2- and 3-methylbutyl acetate7.8a ± 2.315.9b ± 2.57.0a ± 0.76.1a ± 1.3
    Ethyl hexanoate0.03a ± 0.010.03a ± 0.00.4a ± 0.00.4a ± 0.1
    Hexyl acetate0.7a ± 0.40.5a ± 0.00.3a ± 0.10.1b ± 0.0
    Ethyl octanoate0.1a ± 0.010.05a ± 0.00.2a ± 0.00.1b ± 0.0
    Ethyl decanoate0.1a ± 0.010.03a ± 0.00.1a ± 0.00.1a ± 0.0
        Total estersc8.7a ± 2.716.6b ± 2.58.7a ± 0.87.8a ± 1.7
Higher alcohol concn (mg/liter)
    Butanol2.8a ± 0.42.4b ± 0.01.5a ± 0.22.0b ± 0.3
    2-Methyl propanol79.5a ± 3.6252.5b ± 20.560.5a ± 2.3134.6b ± 1.7
    2- and 3-methyl butanol109.2a ± 5.1122.6b ± 5.6156.5a ± 7.4219.8b ± 19
    Hexanol1.3a ± 0.10.7b ± 0.01.3a ± 0.11.5a ± 0.4
        Total higher alcohols192.7a ± 8.5378.3b ± 26.1234.5a ± 18371.0b ± 30
Volatile acid concn
    Acetic acid (g/liter)0.1a ± 0.00.1a ± 0.00.3a ± 0.00.3a ± 0.2
    Propanoic acid (mg/liter)1.0a ± 0.10.8b ± 0.02.6a ± 0.03.0b ± 0.2
    2-Methyl propanoic acid (mg/liter)4.0a ± 0.32.3b ± 0.04.6a ±0.03.7b ± 0.1
    Butanoic acid (mg/liter)0.6a ± 0.00.7a ± 0.01.1a ± 0.11.0b ± 0.1
    2-Methyl butanoic acid (mg/liter)0.4a ± 0.00.1b ± 0.01.4a ± 0.11.4a ± 0.2
    3-Methyl butanoic acid (mg/liter)0.6a ± 0.00.1b ± 0.01.7a ± 0.01.5a ± 0.3
    Hexanoic acid (mg/liter)2.7a ± 0.11.9b ± 0.12.4a ± 0.11.9b ± 0.2
    Octanoic acid (mg/liter)4.3a ± 0.13.0b ± 0.21.7a ± 0.01.0b ± 0.0
    Decanoic acid (mg/liter)1.2a ± 0.20.8a ± 0.00.4a ± 0.00.3b ± 0.0
        Total volatile acids (mg/liter)d14.8a ± 0.99.6b ± 0.416.1a ± 0.213.8b ± 0.3
  • a Values are means ± standard deviations of three independent replicates. Shared superscript letters without italics in the same column indicate no significant difference; different superscript letters in the same column indicate that differences are significant (LSD test, P < 0.05).

  • b <LOD, below the limit of detection (0.5 μg/liter).

  • c The total excludes ethyl acetate.

  • d The total excludes acetic acid.