TABLE 1

Summary of limonene MICs and mutations found in evolved strains

StrainGenaMICb (mg/liter)FCcMutationGeneFunction
S288C069
TB3021201301.9SNP (Q763L)PDR3Transcriptional activator of the pleiotropic drug resistance network
Indel (deletions of E314, V315, P316)TCB2ER protein located in the mother and daughter bud, involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering
TB4051601221.8SNP (Q763L)PDR3Transcriptional activator of the pleiotropic drug resistance network
Indel (frameshift; truncation at 989 aa)TCB3ER protein located in the mother and daughter bud, involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering
Indel (frameshift; truncation at 192 aa)TSA1Thioredoxin peroxidase
SNP (Q192G)
SNP (D380H)UBP11Ubiquitin-specific protease
TB5112001382.0SNP (Q763L)PDR3Transcriptional activator of the pleiotropic drug resistance network
Indel (frameshift; truncation at 989 aa)TCB3ER protein located in the mother and daughter bud, involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering
Indel (frameshift; truncation at 192 aa), SNP (Q192G)TSA1Thioredoxin peroxidase
SNP (W580S)KSP1Serine/threonine protein kinase
SNP (nonsense; Q1014*)PSE1Karyopherin/importin that interacts with the nuclear pore complex
SNP (L84S)RPL30Ribosomal 60S subunit protein
TB5162001382.0SNP (Q763L)PDR3Transcriptional activator of the pleiotropic drug resistance network
Indel (frameshift; truncation at 989 aa)TCB3ER protein located in the mother and daughter bud, involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering
Indel, SNP (Q192G)TSA1Thioredoxin peroxidase
SNP (R159T)CDC34Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; regulates cell cycle progression by targeting key substrates for degradation
TB5172001452.1SNP (Q763L)PDR3Transcriptional activator of the pleiotropic drug resistance network
Indel (frameshift; truncation at 989 aa)TCB3ER protein located in the mother and daughter bud, involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering
SNP (nonsense; Q1014*)PSE1Karyopherin/importin that interacts with the nuclear pore complex
SNP (L84S)RPL30Ribosomal 60S subunit protein
TB5192001382.0SNP (Q763L)PDR3Transcriptional activator of the pleiotropic drug resistance network
Indel (frameshift; truncation at 989 aa)TCB3ER protein located in the mother and daughter bud, involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering
SNP (G826R)SIP3Transcription cofactor; acts through interaction with DNA-bound Snf1p
SNP (L127F)YMR102cProtein of unknown function
  • a Gen, generation.

  • b Defined as the amount of limonene required to inhibit the specific growth rate by approximately 50% relative to the growth rate of the same strain in the absence of solvents.

  • c FC, fold change (ratio of the MIC for the evolved strain to the MIC for strain S288C).