TABLE 1

Summary of column experimentsd

TracerExptRun no.C0 (no. of particles/ml)NoteU (cm/min)RBηαTo (min)pHinpHoutlog10(Cmax/C0)
Nitratee10.079.23 × 10−12907.858.240.0
C. parvum human strain11.00 × 105a0.080.00 × 100c2.62 × 10−2c2247.788.23c
C. parvum animal strain19.30 × 105b0.090.00 × 100c2.45 × 10−2c2587.997.91c
Glycoprotein-coated YO CPMs in mixT2A11.60 × 106b0.091.30 × 10−52.57 × 10−24.162208.218.33−5.2
Glycoprotein-coated YO CPMsT616.30 × 104b0.080.00 × 100c3.06 × 10−2c2887.928.42c
Glycoprotein-coated YO CPMsT723.30 × 105b0.110.00 × 100c2.16 × 10−2c2117.868.07c
Biotin-coated BB CPMsT817.80 × 106a0.082.53 × 10−72.75 × 10−25.412508.03−6.3
Biotin-coated BB CPMsT1126.50 × 105a0.093.71 × 10−52.66 × 10−23.632507.848.09−4.6
Uncoated YG CPMs in mixT2A11.60 × 107b0.092.40 × 10−42.57 × 10−23.022208.218.33−3.7
Uncoated YG CPMsT318.10 × 106b0.073.02 × 10−33.18 × 10−21.672608.108.46−2.6
Uncoated YG CPMsT923.40 × 107b0.081.56 × 10−32.84 × 10−22.093207.897.99−2.6
  • a Counted by epifluorescence microscopy.

  • b Counted by solid-phase cytometry.

  • c Breakthrough below sample limit of detection.

  • d C0, input solution concentration; U, measured Darcy velocity; RB, relative mass recovery; η, single-collector efficiency; α, collision efficiency; To, pulse duration; pHin, influent pH; pHout, effluent pH; Cmax, peak (maximum) effluent concentration; mix, simultaneous injection of uncoated and glycoprotein-coated microspheres.

  • e The injection concentration of nitrate was 1 mM (85 mg/liter).