TABLE 4

Distribution of virulence genes among isolates of V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus

OriginSampling seasonNo. (%) of positive strainsa
V. cholerae (n = 24)V. parahaemolyticus (n = 1,757)V. vulnificus (n = 130)
ctxArfb O1rfb O139tcpA El TortcpA classicaltdhtrhtdh + trhvvp
Tidal waterJune 20130000006 (6.5)030 (88.2)
September 20130000013 (6.1)34 (15.9)12 (5.6)5 (100.0)
December 20130000001 (0.7)00
February 2014000000000
April 2014000000000
MudJune 201300000023 (8.2)088 (96.7)
September 2013000001 (0.3)2 (0.5)00
December 20130000003 (1.6)00
February 2014000003 (1.7)000
April 2014000000000
  • a  Presence of genes as determined by PCR. Genes: ctxA, cholera toxin (CT); rfb O1, serotype O1-specific rfb region; rfb O139, serotype O139-specific rfb region; tcpA El Tor, El Tor toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP); tcpA classical, classical TCP; tdh, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH); trh, TDH-related hemolysin; vvp, elastolytic protease.