TABLE 2

Detection and quantification of ESBL-producing E. coli in groups treated by use of competitive exclusiona

  • a Different shades of gray indicate the concentration of ESBL-producing E. coli, expressed as the log10 number of CFU per gram of feces; darker colors correspond to higher concentrations of ESBL-producing E. coli bacteria. I, infected or infectious, ESBL-producing E. coli-challenged chick; S, susceptible chick; ND, not determined. ≠, group indicates if Aviguard was administered to I and/or S chicks; control groups were administered the ESBL-producing E. coli challenge strain only on D1; ±, 0 values for I or S chicks are not expressed as the log10 number of CFU per gram feces but indicate no ESBL-producing E. coli detection; §, D0 is the day of Aviguard administration; cloacal swab specimens were taken right before administration; #, D1 is the day of ESBL-producing E. coli challenge; cloacal swab specimens were taken right before challenge; ¥, on D1, at 1 h after challenge, I chicks were housed together with S chicks; *, days 1 to 3 had each two sampling points (9 a.m. and 4 p.m.); †, the bird died.